ARE FATHERS ENTITLED TO PATERNAL LEAVE?

Fathers could spend up to two weeks with their newborn babies, while adoptive parents and parents-to-be via surrogacy, could get up to 10 weeks of leave. This is due to the latest Labour Laws Amendment Bill 2017 (“amendment bill”), which was passed by the National Assembly in November 2017.

The current labour legislation provides that fathers who want to stay home with their newborn babies have to take family responsibility leave, which is limited to three days per annual cycle, or they must take their own annual leave for this purpose. They are only entitled to family responsibility leave once they have been employed for four months and work for at least four days a week. The current law also makes no provision for paternity leave for adoption parents or fathers-to-be via surrogacy. A mother is entitled to unpaid maternity leave of up to four months and she may also claim from UIF for 17-weeks during this period.

The position regarding paternal leave has, however, drastically changed since the end of last year. On 28 November 2017, the National Assembly passed the Labour Laws Amendment Bill. The amendment bill regulates the rights of fathers in taking paternal leave when their child is born. In terms of the amendment bill, fathers will be entitled to 10 days paternal leave on the birth of a child. In addition, the amendment bill provides for 10 weeks adoption leave for one parent when adopting a child under the age of two and ten weeks “commissioning parent leave” when an employee’s child is born by means of a surrogacy arrangement. The amendment bill also increases unemployment insurance benefits from 238 days to 365 days and increases maternity benefits to 66% of the earnings of the employee at the date of the application for unemployment insurance benefits.

Five things you need to know about the amendment bill:

  1. Fathers’ paternity leave could be up to two weeks

An employee who is a parent and not entitled to maternity leave, will now be entitled to 10 consecutive working days parental leave when that employee’s child is born. The Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997 (BCEA) still provides that mothers are entitled to take maternity leave for up to four months.

  1. A father must have his name on the child’s birth certificate to qualify

Fathers must have their names on the newborn child’s birth certificate in order to apply for paternal leave. The purpose for this is to prevent dishonesty and ensure that the amendment bill cannot be used and abused.

  1. Adoptive parents and parents via surrogacy could get up to 10 weeks of parental leave

An employee who is an adoptive parent of a child less than two years old, is entitled to adoption leave of ten weeks consecutively. In the case of two adoptive parents, one of the employees is entitled to adoption leave and the other to parental leave. The same provision applies for parents-to-be via surrogacy.

  1. Family responsibility leave falls away

The father of a newborn may take three days family responsibility leave in terms of the BCEA –– but under the amendment bill, this no longer applies.

  1. The amendment bill might come into effect by June 2018

The amendment bill will be referred to the National Council of Provinces and if passed, will be submitted to the president for assent. This new amendment bill will bring South Africa in line with other countries, many of which offer between one to four weeks’ paternity leave.

Reference List:

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF UNMARRIED FATHERS

The rights and responsibilities of biological fathers who were not married to the child’s mother at the time of conception or birth can be uncertain. In this article we will discuss when a biological father obtains rights and responsibilities towards their child(ren).

Alissa has a 7-year-old son called Jessie. Alissa had been living with her boyfriend, Mike, for 2 years when Jessie was born. Alissa and Mike were never married and Mike left their common home when Jessie was only 1 year old. Mike makes contact with Jessie and contributes some small amounts towards his maintenance every few months. Alissa would like to know what rights and responsibilities Mike has towards Jessie.

Section 20 of the Children’s Act (“the Act”) confers parental responsibilities and rights on married fathers if they are married to the child’s mother or if they were married at either the time of the child’s conception, birth or any time between conception and birth.

The biological father of a child who does not have parental responsibilities and rights in respect of the child in terms of Section 20 of the Act can acquire these responsibilities and rights if one of the following conditions are fulfilled:

  • at the time of the child’s birth he is living with the mother in a permanent life partnership; or
  • if he consents to be identified; or
  • he successfully applies in terms of Section 26 of the Act to be identified as the father; or
  • he pays damages in terms of customary law; or
  • if he contributes or has attempted in good faith to contribute to the child’s upbringing for a reasonable period; or
  • if he has contributed or attempted in good faith to contribute towards expenses in connection with the maintenance of the child for a reasonable period.[1]

It may be difficult to determine whether two persons are in a permanent life partnership or not. This term lacks a precise definition and has been described as “a stable monogamous relationship where a couple who do not wish to (or are not permitted to) marry, live together and share an intimate relationship” that is akin to marriage. The Constitutional Court has given limited recognition to the relationships labelled as “life partnerships” or “permanent life partnerships”, but no specific meaning has been attached to these terms.[2]

It is important to note that this section applies regardless of whether the child was born before or after the commencement of this Act, and that it does not affect the duty of a father to contribute towards the maintenance of the child.[3]

If there is a dispute between the biological father and the biological mother of a child with regard to the fulfillment by that father of the conditions set out above, the matter must be referred for mediation to a family advocate, social worker, social service professional or other suitably qualified person. Any party to the mediation may have the outcome of the mediation reviewed by a court.[4]

From this article we can see that the only clear responsibility of Mike is that of paying maintenance to support Jessie. Due to the fact that the definition of a permanent life partnership is so vague, Mike and Alissa should refer this matter to one of the abovementioned mediators to obtain certainty about Mike’s rights and responsibilities towards Jessie.

References:

  • The Children’s Act 38 of 2005
  • Du Bois F, Willie’s Principle of South African Law (2007), 9th ed.

[1] Section 21 of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005.

[2] Du Bois F, Willie’s Principle of South African Law (2007), 9th ed., p363.

[3] Section 21(2) of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005.

[4] Section 21(3) of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted. (E&OE)